Technology Collaboration Programme


Back to countries

United States of America


Major Developments in 2020

The United States population continues to rely on vehicles for personal transportation. However, because of the global COVID-19 pandemic, individuals drove less and the cumulative national vehicle miles travelled (VMT) for the year 2020 decreased by 13.2% compared to 2019.

Sales of electric-drive vehicles in the U.S. in 2020 decreased ~9% from their 2019 value, the cumulative total reached 1.74 million plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs) since December 2010. During 2020, there were 44 PEV models sold, including both plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs) and battery electric vehicles (BEVs); as well as 66 hybrid electric vehicle (HEV) models, for total sales of ~740,000 units.

Industry and Market

Market developments included:

  • Uber announced that “100 percent” of its rides will take place in electric vehicles by 2030 in the US, Canada, and Europe.
  • Proterra has opened a new battery production line co-located in its EV bus manufacturing facility in Los Angeles County. The new battery production line will manufacture Proterra’s battery packs with its next-generation cells.
  • Zoox Inc., the self-driving startup owned by Inc., unveiled a fully autonomous electric vehicle with no steering wheel that can drive for a day and a night on a single charge.
  • Walmart is targeting zero emissions in global operations by 2040. That includes completely electrifying its long-haul trucks and other vehicles by that year.
  • Exelon will electrify 30% of its vehicle fleet by 2025, increasing to 50% by 2030. This transition will be achieved through a combination of fully electric vehicles, vehicles with plug-in idle mitigation units and plug-in hybrids.

Battery Technoloy developments included:

  • Mercedes-Benz is investing over $1 Billion (USD) in global EV battery production.
  • Ford is investing €42M in its Valencia plant for new hybrid models and battery assembly operations.
  • Stanford scientists identified new Li-B-S solid electrolyte materials that boost lithium-ion battery performance.
  • The battery supplier SK Innovation revealed that it is developing cells that will only need two quick 10-minute charges to cover more than 500 miles of range when installed in an EV.

Charging Infrastructure developments included:

  • SAE International published a new J2954 wireless charging standard, paving the way for charging without the need for plugging in—widely considered to be a key enabler for accelerating the adoption of EVs and autonomous vehicles.
  • Electrify America expanded home charging offerings with the launch of Electrify Home, offering a simple and efficient purchase approach for existing and prospective EV owners.
  • General Motors Co. partnered with electric-vehicle charging operator EVgo Services to build nationwide fast-charging infrastructure as the automaker prepares a major push into battery-powered models.
  • Researchers at DOE’s Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) demonstrated a 20kW bi-directional wireless charging system installed on a UPS medium-duty, plug-in hybrid electric delivery truck.

Policy and Government

Federal Government policy developments included:

  • DOE announced $139 million in federal funding for 55 projects across the country that will support new and innovative advanced vehicle technologies including advancing lithium-ion batteries using silicon-based anodes.
  • DOE released the Energy Storage Grand Challenge Roadmap for a 44% reduction in manufactured cost for a 300-mile EV pack by 2030.

Legislation changes included:

  • U.S. Rep. Ro Khanna introduced legislation to promote access to EVs around the country. A House companion bill aims to promote EV purchase and utilisation by government agencies.
  • U.S. Rep. Ocasio-Cortez introduced the bill to build a national network of high-speed chargers for electric cars under legislation. The bill — dubbed the EV Freedom Act — would establish a network of chargers along public highways within five years.


Global sales of light-, medium-, and heavy-duty PEVs are estimated to continue growing according to forecasts from Bloomberg New Energy Finance which forecasts that EVs will become cheaper to make than gasoline vehicles and will globally sell 30 million units in 2030.

Electrification remains an integral feature of self-driving cars, as evidenced by ongoing test projects at Ford, GM, Uber, Waymo, and other auto industry members. As this technology achieves the performance and cost claimed by its advocates and remains EV-based, the share of electrified vehicle miles travelled could increase substantially.