EV ADOPTION BY YEAR
Major Development in 2020
The Dutch Government ambition is that by 2030, only zero emission passenger cars will be sold in the Netherlands. The Formula E-Team is the Dutch public-private platform to promote e-mobility and accelerate the transition to electric vehicles. The aim is to meet the climate targets and, in addition, to take advantage of the associated economic opportunities.
Despite the Covid19 pandemic, the number of full electric passenger cars increased in 2020. A purchase subsidy was introduced in 2020 for both new and used cars. The budget for new cars was exhausted in one week. Almost 25% of new registrations were electric vehicles, with over 20% being BEVs. The pandemic did impact the sector tremendously; people worked from home and therefore charged less. Large investments were in the sector were also postponed.
The National Charging Infrastructure Agenda, installed as part of the National Climate Agreement, was fully implemented, resulting in an increase of the number of charging points installed per month.
Additional major milestones in the Netherlands includes: the announcement of zero emission zone (ZEZ) implementation for the 30-40 largest cities by 2025, 20 cities have already announced their plans for a ZEZ and more are expected to follow, and the 1,000th zero-emission public transport bus was delivered - making 1/5th of the total bus fleet for public transport zero-emission. The Netherlands is on track for its target to have 100% of public transport buses zero-emission by 2030.
The National Charging Infrastructure Agenda was drawn up, the guiding principle is that all new passenger cars will be zero emission in 2030 and that charging infrastructure will not be a barrier for electrification of other vehicle modes.
Cities can implement a zero emission zone for commercial vehicles from the 1st of January 2025. From 2025, all new trucks and vans that want to enter a zero emission zone need to be emission free.
A National Strategic Approach to Batteries was announced, in which various ministries collaborate to address responsible use (such as raw materials and recycling issues) and smart exploitation of opportunities (such as economic chances for Dutch industry and using batteries as a grid buffer).
Financial and fiscal incentives
One of the drivers behind the increase of electric vehicles in the Netherlands is fiscal stimulation. The focus on stimulating zero emission vehicles, tax measures for plug-in hybrid vehicles will gradually be reduced to the same level as conventional cars.
In 2020, a national purchase subsidy was introduced: € 4,000 for a new car (2020 budget € 10 million) and € 2,000 for a used car (2020 budget €7.2 million). The subsidy scheme is valid until 2025 with a annually decreasing amount for new cars. The subsidy is applicable to BEVS with a range of at least 120 km, with a catalogue value between € 12,000 and € 45,000 and not for converted cars. The subsidy for new cars was exhausted in just one week and resulted in a sales spike.
The decrease in the energy tax for electricity for public chargers has been extended to 2022. It contributes to the willingness of companies to invest in public charging infrastructure.
A tender for installing 8,000 charging points for the provinces of Brabant and Limburg by using data-driven roll-out was granted to Vattenfall. Another large tender for the provinces of North-Holland, Flevoland and Utrecht contained a total of 20,000 charge points.
An interesting innovation in inland shipping is the first container ship Alphenaar with swappable battery packs. It was developed for Heineken and will be deployed on a fixed route, which makes it possible to efficiently organise battery swapping.
More than 20% of buses used for public transport are electric. The largest single fleet drives in the region IJssel-Vecht where 246 e-buses were taken into operation in one go. This success is due to a mix of collaboration, clear goals (zero emission public transport by 2030) and knowledge exchanges.
There were several announcements of electrifying special use vehicles, like a concrete mixer (Kijlstra), a loader crane with trailer (ERA Contour & Vlot Logistics), a 10-12 ton rolling machine (BAM Infra) and a mobile crane (Spierings)
It is unclear what the long-term impact of Covid-19 will be for the e-mobility sector. The economy in general will have to recover. The market for electric vehicles will continue to develop further, as more affordable cars are introduced into the market and more second-hand electric cars become available. The purchase subsidy for passenger cars is now set to last until the end of 2025. Before that, market developments will be evaluated to investigate whether more government support for electric cars will be needed, this will ensure that by 2030 all new sold cars will be zero emission. In 2021 a purchase subsidy for electric vans will be introduced, along with a subsidy scheme for non-road mobile machinery and extended support on ‘learning by doing’ for zero-emission trucks (via the DKTI-transport subsidy scheme).
The planned adjustment of the EU-Alternative Fuels Infrastructure Directive (AFID) is important to advance the electro-mobility developments in Europe, working on roaming across borders and price transparency for EV drivers. In the Netherlands, from 1st July 2021, CPOs will be obliged to publicly share information on the availability and ad hoc prices of (semi) public chargers, so dynamic information can be gathered.
Further work will be done to approach e-mobility in an integral way by taking into account the other subsectors of the energy transition, this will further improve the understanding of future electricity demand and supply.